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    A) Should hospitals and healthcare facilities make a concerted effort to employ ex-prisoners? Why? What might be some of the constraints? Has anyone been successful at such a hiring practice?

    Yes, hospitals and healthcare facilities should make a concerted effort to employ ex-prisoners. This addresses socioeconomic factors that impact their well-being. Ex-prisoners can better take care of themselves when they are employed, especially if they have medical benefits. They won’t be a burden on the state or go back to crime. Some constraints to hospitals hiring ex-prisoners are state and federal regulatory restrictions, fear of liability, a prisoner’s lack of sills and experience, and certain types of convictions, for example, sex offenses, violent felonies, and crimes against children. Some examples of hospitals that have been successful in implementing this method are the Sinai Health System in Chicago, John Hopkins Health System in Baltimore, Henry For Health System in Detroit, and the Metro Health and University Hospitals in Cleveland.

    C) The 1619 Project made reference to the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (Bureau of Freedmen). What other 2-3 federal healthcare related policies have been enacted by the U.S. government since 1865 to 2010? Which of those policies have been most successful?

    Three healthcare related policies that have been enacted between 1865 and 2010 are Medicare in 1945, Medicaid in 1965, and the Affordable Care Act(ACA) in 2010. Medicare and Medicaid have been very successful while the Affordable Care Act has not been as successful because the Republican Party has been passing legislation to reduce its effectiveness. Medicare has been providing insurance coverage for almost 50 million Americans. Medicaid provides insurance to low-income individuals. It covers almost 70 million Americans today. In 2014, it reimbursed hospitals for almost 50 percent of all medical expenses. It has also lowered the nation’s uninsured rate to under 9 percent, which is the highest coverage in U.S. history. The Affordable Care Act requires most U.S. citizens to apply for health insurance coverage with a penalty for those don’t, with an exception for a few protected groups. Companies that employ more than 200 people must provide health insurance coverage. Because the Affordable Care Act was enacted by our Black President, Barack Obama, from the Democratic Party, the Republican Party has been trying at every turn to dismantle it.